Milan Proposed Urban Green Network PGT Milan - p. 27 . The Laboratory Innova on Park Milano .. Piano di Governo del Territorio or PGT Milano. (International city). pflegeelternnetz.info The PGT is introduced 12). pflegeelternnetz.info%pflegeelternnetz.info MILANO PORTO DI MARE - Exercises from Urban Plans Studio. School of .. It is with the PGT (Piano di Governo del Territorio - Plan for. Governing the.
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PDF | On Jan 1, , Federico Acuto and others published L'urbanistica degli ultracorpi. Note sul PGT di Milano. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jun 1, , Paolo Galuzzi and others published La perequazione urbanistica. Milano, criticità e rimedi nel caso del PGT. Existing railway circulation. Porta Romana and Accessibile. Routes. Figure Comune di Milano, PGT, Agenzia Mobilita Ambiente e Territorio, Febbraio
Table 4 Characteristics of the large-scale retail trade Source: Despite the length of the water system, Milan could not be considered a city based on a big river as Paris or London. The study on the navigability which Navigli canals developed by Politecnico di Milano University might represent a common base as starting point. The most common way is the e-commerce, selling products from independent transporters trough transit points, where the orders are optimised for the delivery. It intends to explore the possibilities of the existing railway infrastructures to connect them with the large scale retail trade without compromising smaller retail sales. A first impact analysis shows the beneficial effects of the project on the traffic reduction, the increase of public transport, the use of water for irrigation and heat and cold production for buildings. Dato disponibile per il download tramite https:
The United Kingdom and Scotland started a remarkable intervention on the urban navigable canals, which gave an input to the urban regeneration of important cities such as Birmingham, Glasgow and Edinburgh. A first impact analysis shows the beneficial effects of the project on the traffic reduction, the increase of public transport, the use of water for irrigation and heat and cold production for buildings.
Other indirect benefits will be related to the landscape and to the urban living environment. Water has been the main resource in the history of Milan, and it should start again to be considered in the governance because of its multiple uses such as transport of people and goods, production of clean energy, tourist attraction and interconnection of the urban and peri-urban territory.
The research focuses on the Architectural, Geological, Economic and transport feasibility. It affects 12 km of navigable canals, where 7,6km are still closed and badly managed. The construction of ten locks will solve the problem of the difference of level between the North and the South of the canal and the 43 bridges will connect the opposite banks in strategic points.
Removing the roads covering the canals, the system of Navigli will also affect the mobility: Reducing the road mobility, it will be possible to create more pedestrian areas which will be integrated to the existing ones. Moreover, a seat ferry will be used to connect the North to the South of Navigli. Politecnico di Milano Figure 24 Sections of the canals Source: In particular, from the energetic point of view, Navigli would allow the installation of heat pumps along their tracks, especially in the metropolitan areas.
The excavation that will be needed represent an opportunity to reorder the existing underground services and to host new ones such as district heating, wiring, parking, storage of goods and other technological equipment.
The multifunctionality of Navigli then passes to the commercial productive activities which, if the system of Navigli is extended the Adda, Ticino and Po rivers, will benefit of more market appeal and goods could be distributed via water, reducing the impact of the road transport on the conventional one.
Moreover, a system of active canals will definitely restore the old function of agricultural irrigation, which is already present in other action plans for Milan AQST, Milano Metropoli Rurale. Finally, the navigability of Navigli could have a strategic role in the project and in its general overview, it could justify the costs of the project because of its potentiality of attracting tourism in Milan.
It should not be put aside the benefits of the environmental and touristic valorisation, and of the landscape regeneration, with the related increase of the real estate value. The payment will be covered by private and public resources through an articulated plan.
The proposed financing modalities are: According to the study, the guidelines for a sustainable development of the territory surrounding the canals have the following objectives: On the other side, the project for the Navigli canals has also to face relevant issues. First of all, the difference of level between the North and the South affects the navigability in terms of time and costs: However, intermediate distances, which will be mostly used for touristic purposes, they will not be particularly affected in terms of time.
Generally, the types of navigation could be classified as follow: In order to circulate in the canals of the city centre, the maximum width of the mean should be 2,5m, the length 11,3m and the height out of water 1,6m.
It could carry until 36 people and the boat should be able to navigate bi-directionally with electric propulsion Figure 25 Limit of the ferry-boat for Navigli Source: Politecnico di Milano Because of the presence of innumerable bridges and locks interrupting canals, the Regional Territorial Plan of the area highlights that their navigability could be compromised. However, it relies in the sectorial mobility of different parts of the canals, which permits a better efficiency and speed.
For example, the sectors which have been covered to build roads, now they have a key role for the traffic of Milan and, if they are reopened, the new mobility should be appropriately monitored, planned and redistributed. However, the following paragraphs provide an investigation of the relevant poles for the food system basing on the available information.
For the large retail trade and distribution, it has been necessary to refer to the more general transport of goods because of the lack of specific data about food. Most of the agricultural activities, indeed, are condensed in this park, which is one of the biggest ones in Europe. Figure 26 Use of the soil in Milan Source: Dirk Wascher, Wageningen Environmental Research Translating the previous map into a diagram, it has been analysed the importance of the agricultural areas of Milan for the food production, but also their issues related to crops diversity: In conclusion, all the South fertile lands of Milan included in the Po valley, between the Po, Adda and Ticino Rivers represent a global hub for food production which could be specifically addressed to the demand of the city.
In numbers, farms are working in the area of Milan cultivating 2. Baraggia A. First of all, the Food Policy Pact, an international agreement between mayors of worldwide cities to set up an agenda aiming to develop the food chain with sustainable principles and social justice.
It followed the promotion of several bottom up activities based on the vision of short chain, local production and retail, social inclusion, etc.
They are mostly financed by Cariplo foundation, which supports the organizations of civil society representing the social infrastructures of the system. The active networks in Milan, working on the local scale for the food market and purchase, are These organisations are sporadic activities on the territory, occupying just a marginal part of the food market if compared to the Large-Scale Retail Trade. Due to lack of information, governance and scaling-up processes, it happens that they act completely independently, without cooperating between each other.
It could be said the same for the 15 farm markets, the gardens Despite this, small retailers still remain numerous in the city, accounting 5.
The spatial distribution of food hubs is not clearly documented in the existing studies.
Then, it has been carried out a qualitative investigation of transport and retail hubs in the area of Milan attempting to study their mutual relations and perform the future planning and assessment while achieving more efficiency and sustainability. Figure 30 Transport and retail hubs in the area of Milan Source: The medium and large retail concentrates its presence in the city centre with specialised commerce, while commercial structures are always more located in the peripheries through hypermarkets and hard discounts.
The other medium and large retail is distributed around the main radial axes of the city. On the other hand, the hinterland of Milan is recently evolving as commercial cities such as Cinisello Balsamo and Sesto San Giovanni, which are able to provide a wide variety of products to the consumers. Figure 31 SogeMi grocery market, Milan Source: Because of its particular location between the agricultural and urban area of Milan, Porto di Mare could connect the countryside to the city through a food system which strongly supports local production and retail, within a logic of social inclusion, circular economy and sustainable food chain.
Local and regional governments are cooperating with Politecnico di Milano University while defining the future governance of the district permitting local initiatives to be scaled up. Figure 32 Porto di Mare district Source: IMM DesignLab, Politecnico di Milano Porto di Mare aims to become a sample for the other pheripheries in Milan, an eco-district based on food production as a driver to spread local economy, social inclusion and activities in the area.
In order to achieve this goal, the territory will be integrated with an implemented transport system for goods and people which should be alble to implement and support the future expansion of the food hub. Moreover, new activities need new services and, for this reason, the accessibility and the mobility in and to the quartier are key categories to be investigated, performed and adapted to solve the actual issues and prevent the future necessities.
Wascher, M. Corsi, G. Sali and I. Zasada, it emerged that the most striking attribute of Milano metropolitan region is the small amount of accessible pasture land within the kilometer zone around the center. At the same time, there are 1. Wascher D. The illustration above compares different European cities and their land resources for different uses: Big hypermarkets, supermarkets, hard discounts are distributed in the periphery and they started growing in recent times.
Figure 36 Study area Source: Politecnico di Milano University Four main categories of operators can be schematised as follow: In the following paragraph, different distribution systems have been analysed and classified through a qualitative indicator based analysis, with the intention to underline their problematics responsible of an inefficient retail which could find appealing solutions in the innovation of the transport system: The following table summarises the collected information: Table 4 Characteristics of the large-scale retail trade Source: The following table describes their characteristics: Table 5 Characteristics of the retail sales Source: The most common way is the e-commerce, selling products from independent transporters trough transit points, where the orders are optimised for the delivery.
Consumers receive the products during lunchtime and in the evening. These problems are affecting considerably the existing road infrastructures, which also have to face a large amount of car traffic. Data show around Moreover, the difficulties in finding parking spots for the delivery, due to the promiscuity between the commercial fluxes and the private ones, causes a disordered occupation of the roads with a consequent negative impact on the mobility.
Transport of goods and food are contributing to the increase of traffic, pollution and accidents, but they are also affected by its consequences: They suggested to move the delivery in evening hours without success, since retailers are still willing to receive goods during the opening hours of their activities Analysing the intermodality of Milan, the city has not an interport, anyway, nine centres of intermodal exchange are provided with a railway terminal, six from the FS national railway Greco Pirelli, Certosa, and Porta Romana, Rogoredo , three on private areas Certosa, Pioltello, Rho and four more distant from the city centre Vittuone-Arluno, Melzo, Desio.
There is a growing demand of transport services in the urban area due to the organisation of the logistic commercial structures. The increase of the traffic flow and congestion seem originated by the high frequency delivery requests to retailers.
In order to avoid the problem, new platforms should be created in the urban area but small retailers are not able to sustain the extra costs of their realization and management. On the other hand, the operators of the e-commerce are interested in the creation of quartier platforms on the territory as pick up points and they could represent a new group of future investors.
It intends to explore the possibilities of the existing railway infrastructures to connect them with the large scale retail trade without compromising smaller retail sales. The main measures proposed in the document are: On the contrary, the promotion of the night delivery will find more problems due to the lack of will from retailers, who prefer receiving products during the opening hours of their activities.
Then, the proposal of the creation of new parking areas is contrasting the indications of the more recent PUMS document Urban Plan for Sustainable Mobility , which describes its intention of stopping the construction of parking due to its low efficiency and limited gain of the investment. Also the idea of new investments on road based infrastructure does not match with the PUMS document since it will move the investments on the implementation of the rail-based public transport network because of its better sustainability and margin of improvement in its efficiency.
In conclusion, the actual governance, legislation and policies do not seem appropriate, sufficient and coherent while facing the problem of the transport of food and, generally, of goods.
The existing documents are contradictory and they are not coordinated in their provisions, confirming a necessity of a new, appropriate and holistic study on the food distribution and its infrastructures, considering more innovative solutions for the transport.
The suggestions are ordered in the following table: Table 6 Guidelines for the transport of food Source: Step by step, they should be converted and replaced with more sustainable ones while promoting their sharing to maximizing the efficiency and minimizing the costs.
However, to develop an impacting solution, it is necessary to think with a more holistic vision, searching for innovative ways of transport permitting convenient alternatives to the road based ones. In the next chapter, it will be analysed the role of the water system in the transport of food and the related ongoing researches aiming to improve the mobility and food distribution of Milan.
The consequent negative results for the city are traffic congestion during the day time, while air and acoustic pollution affect the quality of life of the inhabitants and their surrounding environment.
In the next paragraphs, the study is addressed to the implementation of the main specific issues for the transport system of Milan through the introduction of the water system as a new distribution network. The aim is the provision of solutions which are maximising the benefits for the society, the economy and the environment, respecting the different priorities while preventing unilateral approaches and initiatives creating an unbalanced development. The objectives have been classified in the three categories of the Sustainability triangle as illustrated in Fig.
Figure 37 Sustainability triangle for the innovation of the transport system Source: The lack of policies and regulations in this field is not helping in providing solutions to private businesses who are restricted to the use of the existing infrastructures without any investment, if not personal, for a future sustainable innovation. Moreover, the new planning documents for the mobility of Milan limit the investments for the innovation of the roads infrastructures to address the available budget on the public transport sector.
The introduction of a water based transport could positively contribute to the objective while reducing the impact on the total amount of traffic during the daytime. The Navigli canals represent a strategic infrastructure for Milan since they connect the city centre to the peripheries, representing an alternative distribution network flanking the road mobility.
In the previous paragraphs the needs and preferences of retailers and logistic operators have been analysed, with the conclusion that the first ones prefer receiving goods during the working hours, despite the higher costs due to the traffic, which raises the transport time. Water transport might be slower than the road one in terms of absolute values but it has the advantage of having a constant speed and less unexpected delays, guaranteeing a better reliability and a reduction of the extra costs.
Looking at the future of Milan, the new policies presented in the second chapter are showing an extension of the Limited Traffic Zone Area C to reduce the amount of vehicular traffic in the city centre. This process will implicate an increase of the final cost of the transport because of the toll of the LTZ which will support the idea of the water transport also from and economic point of view. If the biggest quantity of food is delivered to Milan city centre via water, it will be possible to use smaller and more efficient vans to deliver food from the Navigli hubs to the retailer or directly to the consumer.
The analysis in the previous chapter highlighted the possibility of creating small food hubs especially for the e-commerce in the Milan urban area to face the distance from the main food hubs in the peripheries. The European Court classified Italy as an area persistently overpassing the limits of air quality with consequent negative effects on the human health.
Thanks to the introduction of more sustainable vehicles, the emissions originated from the engines are drastically decreasing but, the ones originated by the use of the tires and the braking system still persist and they are directly dependent on the travel distances.
However, taking advantage of Navigli canals and water transport, the problem would be solved at its origin, reducing to 0 the amount of emitted PM 10 through the use of electric water vehicles. Moreover, avoiding the traffic problem, which is also responsible of useless emission of PM 10, both the environment, companies and consumers would be favored because of the reduction of unnecessary waste of energy and time. Innovative and sustainable water transports have already been developed and Milan just needs to find the most appropriate one for its canals, which are limiting the navigation because of the level of the water and the low bridges Chapter 3.
For instance, Amsterdam is already studying new prototypes of electric and automatic boats to improve the navigability of its canals; it could provide useful solutions as well for Milan See Roboat, Chapter 5. The other indicator to be considered together with the PM 10 is the emission of greenhouse gases: They mostly depend on the following factors: Concerning the last point, studies are showing that a great part of emissions and pollution is due to the fact that costumers are going shopping by car, the most inefficient mean of transport because of its low load indicator and high pollution This is a particular evidence in the peripheries where the accessibility to supermarkets is lower because of longer distances and less availability of public transports.
In addition, the past urban development led to a concentration of big commercial areas in the peripheries of Milan which boosted the car transport in the last mile.
It can be concluded that the problem of connecting the consumer to the retailer has an absolute relevance, especially for Milan, because of the mentioned reasons. The future research should be particularly focused on this aspect assuring the availability of more convenient and sustainable alternatives to be adopted as soon as possible to reduce the negative impacts of the car transport.
Academic Consultancy Training, Wageningen University Research The image above shows the analysis of the accessibility of the supermarket in a peri urban district of Milan, developed within the Academic Consultancy Training at Wageningen University. It reveals how fast the accessibility is decreasing in peripheries and how car becomes a necessity in relation to the distance.
Due to the high relevance of the issue, the GIS group will realise future analysis understanding how to implement the accessibility through the water transport and its intermodality. According to ARPA, Regional Agency for the Environmental protection Roads and railroads are the biggest source of noise, Milan could benefit from these policies and their consequent innovation they introduce through the improvement of the quality of life and the comfort for the inhabitants.
A better livability of the roads would attract more pedestrians and, generally, more development of the slow mobility. The innovation of the transport system with the consequent decrease of traffic is clearly responding to the need of Milan to move towards a pedestrian friendly future with a comfortable living environment.
The outcoming benefits will also affect the efficiency of the all system, as described in the next paragraph. The most common unit, which is used to evaluate its efficiency is the load coefficient: This information could be judged by the municipality as a problem of sustainability and, by the businesses, as a loss of profit.
Sharing common goal, even though for different reasons, helps creating synergies permitting to cooperate for the creation of better food infrastructures. Within a logic of triple helix approach, government, academia and private sector can easily work together, sharing knowledge and applying the research on spatial analysis and planning.
The study on the navigability which Navigli canals developed by Politecnico di Milano University might represent a common base as starting point. They have the potentiality to be a new infrastructure flanking the road system with an idea of intermodal transport. Moving toward this direction it could also satisfy the preferences of retailers who prefer having goods and food during the opening hours of the activities, condemning trucks to be subjected to the daily traffic.
Navigli will permit to deliver goods at every hour of the day without being affected by the road traffic. Logistic companies will also be satisfied because of the optimization of delivering time while avoiding the traffic which guarantee a higher income because of the reduction of the cost of the service.
It will result a self-sustained and circular system appealing for big and small new investors who are willing to reduce the costs of the transport. Once again, it should be remembered the presence of locks distributed along the canals to mediate the difference of level.
They are affecting consistently the speed of the navigability along the all system but not the one between the different sections. The water transport will be more efficient on short distances, especially for the case of perishable products.
Moreover the efficiency of the logistic could be importantly incremented just through an inclusive planning, considering the integration of transport hubs with food hubs. Andrea Baraggia, Wageningen Environmental Research Combining the analysis of the food hubs with the path of the water system in Milan, it results clear the potentiality of their integration for the implementation of the food distribution. While medium and large retail is principally condensed in the North of Milan, the South shows a higher density of transport and logistic hubs which might be connected to the canals of Milan developing an intermodal water-road infrastructure.
The ongoing Academic Consultancy Training at Wageningen University started analyzing the accessibility of the food retails for the farmers in the metropolitan area of Milan.
In the next steps, it should be analysed the same indicator but assuming a water based transport. Then it will be possible to compare the results and see which mean is better for the different regions of Milan and how they could be integrated to obtain a more efficient and effective transport system.
Once again, the multi modal transport plays a key role in food distribution and, just if it is considered and integrated in the future planning, it would be possible to achieve the optimal result for the involved stakeholders.
Then, it is essential to find the optimum of the use of different available infrastructures and, this is possible through their connection and integration in a comprehensive structure. The main objective is the maximization of the efficiency of the logistic while reducing the number of empty vehicles traveling in Milan and minimizing the travel distances time.
In the conventional mobility of people, the intermodal transport is one of the principal instruments to improve the efficiency of the spatial connectivity. Nowadays the Transport Oriented Development TOD represents a new approach to the spatial planning aiming to guarantee the availability of different transport choices within one quarter mile distance It considers the multi modal transport as crucial for a sustainable development of the territory while respecting the environment.
The joint use of public transports and zero emissions private transports, such as the bike, is emerging and becoming an accessible and easy option for daily working transfers and touristic mobility, 39 Baraggia A. Several interventions combining bike and rail mobility have already been realised in correspondence to train and subway stations located in parallel to the canals. It has also been increased the number of stops and integrated services i. Bike sharing. These interventions are particularly valuable, especially if compared to the navigability of the different sectors of Navigli canals, expanding their usability for touristic, sportive and working purposes.
The study developed by Politecnico di Milano is confirming that the synergy between navigable, cycling and rail networks is a strategic, innovative and integrated solution for the sustainable mobility and for the landscape regeneration, able to attract investments supporting the future development Figure 41 Multi modal mobility of the Navigli system, Source: Politecnico di Milano, Until now, the intermodality plan has been only thought for the conventional mobility.
The next step is to expand the integrated system to the transport of food, where the new triangle is composed by navigability, roadways and railways, guaranteeing an improvement of the efficiency of the actual logistic sector with innovative solutions.
Andrea Baraggia, Wageningen Environmental Research The schema above represents a reinterpretation of the proposal developed by Politecnico di Milano for the conventional mobility. The new point of interests for the food transport Orange points correspond to retailers and distribution centres which should be interconnected and accessible to their consumers. The three different infrastructures then, should be developed according to the needs of the three different targets: All the undertaken action should be addressed to the creation of an easier food accessibility for consumers, with the intention to reduce the last mile, which is one of the most impacting sector of the food chain in terms of efficiency, environmental sustainability and traffic creation.
Hence, it is necessary to reduce the travel number and distances accomplished by car to increase the load coefficient Public transports could represent and alternative transport modality if their frequency, density, confort are increased and costs reduced At the same time, food retailers should be distributed with a high density all around Milan and its metropolitan area, avoiding the concentration of big hypermarkets in the peripheries requiring the use of the car and increasing the amount of traffic.
On the other hand, policies should support the efficiency of the food logistic, increasing the load of the vehicles and reducing their number. Literature is 41 Hawkes, ; Department for Transport, However, this is in contrast with the idea of reduction of travelling vehicles and it shows some contradictions and limits of the road based transport.
Infrastructure development and innovation should be adapted to the necessities to the new needs of the food system. The Academic Consultancy Training is working on this analysis understanding, developing GIS tool able to support the decision making process. Academic Consultancy Training Wageningen University Research The first necessary step to plan a new integrated transport system is an indicator-based analysis which, as in Chapter 2, investigates potentialities and issues of the existing system.
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