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CONDITIONING FOR MARTIAL ARTS. KARATE. JUDO. TAE KWON DO For complete information on all Dr. Squat's e-booklets, products, programs and more . In terms of my physical preparation for the martial arts, Martin Rooney is the man .. By following the Warrior Challenge Training Program (completing the .. Physical conditioning is useless without developing concentration and dedication . This chapter presents 20 exercises complete with photos and descriptions of setup and execution. The goal of Ultimate Conditioning for Martial Arts is simple: .
The maximum time for the plank test is 60 seconds. Drive for 20 yards or meters down and 20 back for a total distance of 40 yards. It presents exercises that range from active dynamic warm-ups to the most explosive exercises for superior results. The way in which a martial artist prepares indicates how he or she will perform. Some of the exercises may not immediately appear to transfer to sport-specific skill sets. By Maamer Slimani. It also improves grip strength and shoulder integrity.
To address the basic strength and conditioning programs extension, rotation, and lateral flexion. As men- isotonic neck exercises should be in- see Table 5. Designing a quality perio- tioned above, the survey study by corporated into a cervical strengthen- dized program should theoretically be Amtmann 1 reported that less than ing program.
The overall goal of periodi- were similar to those seen in whiplash on short notice i. As a result, 1 day to a couple of weeks notice. A strong neck intensity, work to rest ratios, frequency, weeks to train specifically for a fight. As is needed for several reasons. One and mode. Periodization has been a result, a nonlinear or undulating reason is to absorb strikes typically shown to improve performance in model might be the most advantageous encountered during a MMA competi- high-level athletes 28, Further- model as it is designed for sports that tion.
Another reason is to combat the more, according to a comprehensive have many in-season contests, similar fact that the head is constantly being review by Stone 43 , proper periodi- to what an active fighter may encoun- grabbed and pulled on in various zation can mitigate the risk of over- ter Although there is not a large directions to control an opponent, training by varying exercise intensity, body of research that directly com- when they are taken down, and to volume, and exercise selection, as well pares these 2 periodization schemes, Table 5 General comparison of a linear versus undulating nonlinear periodization models 45 Linear periodization model Undulating nonlinear periodization model Characterized by relatively slow but progressive Generally includes relatively large daily increases in intensity over time fluctuations in intensity Generally volume is high in the beginning and gradually Often relatively large daily perturbations decrease as intensity increases in exercise volume Linear periodization often consists of one or more macrocycles Allows for daily or weekly i.
Remember, there are countless their particular goals and needs. DUP resistance training program on ways to set-up and manipulate circuits maximal bench press, leg press, and and exercises.
After 12 weeks, the DUP highly recommended that a heart regularly engages in intense training, it group, when compared with the LP rate monitor be used to assess both should be noted that these athletes group, had the greatest increases in maximal heart rate and how quickly actually spend a greater proportion of maximal strength This will quantitatively actual training.
The concept of re- for bench press, leg press, and arm curl, allow the trainer to determine if the covery and its importance to exercise respectively. However, no statistical fighter is improving in regard to their performance is an evolving phenome- difference was found between the conditioning. In fact, some exercise scientists are groups. Although more research is still Remember, overreaching and over- devoting their research efforts into needed, the authors conclude their training are always a real possibility various aspects of recovery from exer- findings by stating that the DUP may when training a professional mixed cise.
Understanding the importance of be superior to the LP in increasing martial artist because of the volume recovery to optimal performance has maximal strength and that varying and intensity of the exercises they not escaped the United States Olympic daily intensity and volume was more perform. Table 6 lists common signs Committee, as they have opened a new effective than weekly changes Recovery from Hartmann et al. Detailed specifics training.
For more information regard- ery, and training recovery 6. Strength and mediately after their attempts. During versus traditional training theory: In com- Chronic fatigue fight competitions.
It restricts airflow petition, short-term recovery would be slightly and will make the exercises or Muscle and joint pain equated to the time between rounds. The last type of recovery, training Decreased exercise performance However, it is a very good idea to get recovery, is the recovery between 2 athletes feeling comfortable wearing Increased resting heart rate individual training sessions or compet- their mouthpiece during their condi- Depression itions.
For the mixed martial artist, tioning sessions as opposed to fight typical durations of training recovery night. Although all the 3 types interval work is swimming. A novel trend that is beginning to gain popularity, although it is not scientifically proven, is to engage in concentric- only contractions during the active recovery period This training technique is consistent with the Figure 2.
Concentric row, beginning position focus on the left upper extremity. Despite the lack of scientific but also make the mixed martial tractions.
A typical program to optimize strength and conditioning should include HIT and specific resistance exercises that strengthen the body in ways that closely mirror a MMA competition. A comprehensive strength and condi- tioning regimen is paramount for success in modern day MMA. It is important to consider that the sport is still relatively new, and much more research is needed to elucidate optimal training modalities to enhance perfor- mance and reduce recovery time.
However, with this information men- tioned above, a trainer can start to formulate a well-designed program that is specific for the mixed martial Figure 3. Concentric row, end position focus on the left upper extremity. Amtmann JA. Self-reported training is an assistant pro- methods of mixed martial artists at Br J Sports Med J Strength Heart Anatomy, Physiol- Cond Res Indian J Med Res Metabolic Texas.
Exerc Sport Sci Rev Effect of J Strength Cond Res J Sports Med Phys Science and direc- —, Fitness Barnett A. Using recovery modalities Nutrition Labora- Schmidtbleicher D.
Effects of different Does it help? Sports Med Energetics of karate , Eur J Appl Physiol Effect of acute sodium bicarbonate Elfego Galvan 6. A brief review: Brief incremental exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol ing toward his review. Effect of high from excess CO2 output during constant York at Buffalo. Appl Human Sci Eur J Appl Horswill CA.
Applied physiology of amateur Physiol Anaerobic and Matthew during a simulation of a Muay Thai boxing aerobic power in arms and legs of elite Cooke is a post- match. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab Int J Sports Med A comparison of Issurin V. Block periodization versus Schools of Medi- ballistic-movement and ballistic-intent traditional training theory: J Sports Med Phys Fitness Kentta G and Hassmen P. Overtraining and of Queensland in A conceptual model.
Sports Med Oliveira A. Theories, Queensland, Australia. Rev Bras Med Jose Antonio is A survey Optimal loading for peak power output an assistant pro- of the scientific data and training methods during the hang power clean in fessor of Biology at utilized by collegiate strength and professional rugby players. Int J Sports conditioning coaches. Res Skinner J. He is the CEO Endurance and neuromuscular changes in mixed martial arts. Br J Sports Med Kraemer W and Fleck SJ. Optimizing Society of Sports Nutrition.
Physiol Strength Training: Human Kinetics Stone MH. Muscle conditioning and Publishers, Foschini D, de Cassia Marqueti R, muscle injuries. Med Sci Sports Exerc The Figueira A, Jr. Comparison —, Strength Cond J Med Sci and Fleck SJ. Influence of resistance LN. A comparison of linear and daily Sports Exerc Training physiological and performance adaptations equated volume and intensity for strength. Essentials of in collegiate women tennis players.
Strength Training and Conditioning. Rooney M. Training for Warriors DVD. Baechle T and Earle E, eds. Champaign, IL: Overtrainingin Sport. Kreider R, Fry A, Training for Warriors. New Human Kinetics, Human Kinetics, York, NY: Harper-Collins, Effects of a competitive contractions on exercise-induced muscle Christoulas K, Vamvakoudis E, Stefanidis P, wrestling season on body composition, injury, inflammation, and serum IL Ekblom B, and Mandroukas K.
Yoon J. Physiological profiles of elite senior characteristics in wrestlers. Int J Sports Med wrestlers. Sleivert G and Taingahue M. The Ugolotti G, and Varacca A. Effect of boxing and Newton RU. The effect of heavy- vs. Int J Sports Med 6: Cond Res Physiological profile of elite Iranian junior freestyle wrestlers.
Making the weight: A case study from professional boxing. Murlasits Z. Special considerations for designing wrestling-specific resistance- training programs. Dustin Jacoby. I love you all so very much! Thank you to all the models who helped with capturing the exercises in this book: Josh Cavan.
Peter Straub. Neil Magny. Dimitri Veal. Chaun Simms. Trevor Whitman. Bobby Lashley. Brendan Schaub. Jared Hammon. Brian Foster. Bojan Velickovic. Randy Rowland. And also thank you to Rebecca Simms for assisting with the chapter on recovery and nutrition and Kim Constantainesco for the hours spent on the editing process during this journey! Thank you to my family. All these coaches.
This distinction means that intent is the highest priority when considering the transferable qualities of training.
These years of effort have led me to a simple understanding: Performance training requires a unique blend of science and intuition. Many good training programs have been created. Each of viii. Throughout this book. For example.
Regardless of the preferred approach to martial arts training. Martial arts teach us that this process is more about the journey than about the destination. This book is the result of my own year search for the optimal training program for sport performance.
The The Story of Success plays a role both in strength and conditioning in the martial arts. With these realities in mind. Along the way. I have been fortunate enough to work with some of the best athletes in the world. It presents exercises that range from active dynamic warm-ups to the most explosive exercises for superior results. We must use science to justify our methods. I have made countless errors. With that said. I have dedicated myself to the craft of preparing athletes to excel in their sport of choice.
This rule tells us that in order to master any craft. For training to be fully functional. It not only guides martial artists. Introduction Welcome to the journey of performance training for martial arts! Whether a person is already a martial artist or has just decided to become one.
To help you make the most of the journey. More specifically. Whatever role you play in this process—practitioner.
Chapter 1 Physical Requirements for Martial Arts identifies the physical attributes that athletes need for martial arts. This chapter includes 41 exercise photos. To help achieve this goal. Chapter 3 Dynamic Warm-Ups and Flexibility introduces the foun- dation of the training program. The result of this process is commonly known as a needs analysis..
Chapter 7 Exercises for Speed and Agility builds on the part— whole teaching method to help athletes fulfill their potential for. For this reason. Chapter 5 Exercises for Striking and Kicking and chapter 6 Exercises for Wrestling and Grappling offer a range of strength-building and explosive exercises categorized by purpose e.
The progressions presented in this book are based on levels of com- petence. Athletic ability is made up of several biomotor abilities. Chapter 4 Exercises for Base Conditioning examines how to condi- tion for a particular discipline depending on its specific demands and on the bodily energy system that takes highest priority in that discipline. As with martial arts belt systems. Athletes who build a good foundation of muscular endurance can express more strength and therefore more power—the X factor in sport.
The best preparation for tactical sessions involves active dynamic flexibility. Whether one is brand new to martial arts practice or is a lifelong practitioner. Chapter 9 Program Planning and Periodization for Martial Arts puts all of the training variables together. The goal is to manipulate those variables in order to elicit the best training response at the optimal time for competition.
The good news is that we can customize a training program for MMA by drawing on the appropriate training methods presented in earlier chapters. Chapter 8 Recovery and Nutrition covers two key facets of all train- ing. Chapter 10 Programs for the Striking and Kicking Arts and chapter 11 Programs for the Wrestling and Grappling Arts build on the infor- mation presented in chapter 9.
At its core. This chapter presents 20 exercises complete with photos and descriptions of setup and execution. The goal of Ultimate Conditioning for Martial Arts is simple: Minimize confusion and maximize individual results.
These chapters take a more art-specific approach to creating programs for individual disciplines. Too often. To resolve such confusion. Although MMA is one of the fastest-growing sports in the world.
It can be intimidating to consider the various training options. When martial arts are viewed through the lens of athletic qualities. They fulfill these functions—from the adolescent to the elite level—by laying a firm foundation of fundamentals. Because conditioning and speed lie at opposite ends of a continuum.
Elite athletes. To maximize this ability. From the running speed of a meter sprint to the delivery speed of a kick or punch. Speed can also be seen.
Most athletes can develop the various biomotor abili- ties concurrently. Speed Of all the athletic qualities. However you picture it. Be mindful also of the fact that speed depends on technique. As a result. In combat sports in particular. Agility Agility separates good athletes from great ones—for example. It is crucial. This ability can be both an innate gift and a trainable skill.
The goal of agility training is to learn how to do the right things from the wrong positions. The muscles that allow an athlete to move fast and produce timely force are governed by the nervous system. In grappling-based sports—such as wrestling. This book. Olympic-style movements.
The power developed in class can be augmented by dedicating separate training time to build general power. Maximal strength is the ability to display maximal voluntary contraction against resistance.
Research has shown that dynamic stretching is superior to static stretching because it reduces the likelihood of injury and enables greater power output McMillan et al. Strength As stated earlier. Specific power exercises can be found in chapter 5 on striking and kicking and chapter 6 on wrestling and grappling. It involves not only how bend- able a person is but also the strength that he or she possesses in the avail- able range of motion. With this in mind.
When dis- cussing strength in numerical values.
Many qualities of strength are discussed in later chapters. There are many ways to do so. If performance is about power and explosion. Influencing mobility and stability is also the reason for using an active dynamic warm-up instead of static stretching. Flexibility Mobility and Stability In most martial arts. In mixed martial arts MMA. General conditioning establishes greater work capacity. The active dynamic warm-up presented in chapter 3 is fully detailed and choreo- graphed to provide the best preparation for both practice and competition.
Footwork should not be confused with agility. In the martial arts. The relationship between the two is this: The more coordinated you are and. In this book. Many people assume that coordination should be trained only to a limited extent. Balance Balance tends to be overlooked in most training programs. Conditioning In martial arts. Coordination Coordination is the ability to get various body parts working together in a general sense. Balance also depends heavily on strength.
The alactic phosphagen system is also known as the ATP-PC system and should be thought of as jet fuel—highly powerful but burns up quickly. The lactic glycolytic system fires up after roughly 20 to 90 seconds of high-intensity work—in that part of the intensity range of training when you feel localized burn.
This is a much-needed capacity and one that is trainable if an athlete adheres to appropriate rest intervals that enable him or her to express full power in training.
Year-round training of this type is common in many martial arts. It provides the most readily available ATP and is used for brief. Most people confuse the burn for lactic acid accumulation. Having said that. It is explosive and typically consists of blocks. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Brazilian jiu-jitsu is a self-defense system that focuses on grappling and ground fighting. Karate Developed in what is now Okinawa.
The answer depends on two factors—time and intensity of work. The aerobic oxidative system is the most important of the energy systems. A good aerobic base sets a foundation for future stages of more intensive training. Taekwondo The Korean martial art of taekwondo has been an Olympic event since In reality. The sport hinges on submissions based on joint locks and chokeholds. Many people labor under misconceptions about training. This book touches on the most popular forms and those that are similar to other art forms.
The goal of training this system is to raise the lactate thresh- old—that is. This Olympic sport is known for grappling. With these basics in mind. The human body adapts to the demands placed on it—as long as we avoid overtrain- ing.
Its objective is to throw or otherwise take the opponent to the ground. Wrestling The earliest known wrestling took place in ancient Greece. The primary objective of MMA is to win by submission. Its maneuvers include stand-up striking and various clinching techniques.
Judo Judo was created in Japan and is now an Olympic sport. Those used most often are kickboxing. It is a physical and mental discipline that uses fists.
As shown in table 1. With the proper training and recovery.
From this initial stimulation. Of course. Learning the skill of relaxation will help him or her utilize the cross-extensor reflex.
Energetic similarity means that the conditioning demands of training are similar to the demands of competition in the chosen sport.
A coordinative relationship means that training includes skills similar to those associated with the chosen sport. In the early phase of train- ing. In order to experience adaptation. Dynamic correspondence theory states that in order for training to transfer. A biomechanical relationship means that train- ing includes movements using force and velocity in patterns similar to those associated with the chosen sport. This weeklong phase lowers the training volume of the.
After three or four weeks of increased accumulation. The speed of strik- ing and kicking are critical for the martial artist. The key point is this: Training must transfer directly to the sport of choice. This is the reason that athletes taper prior to major competitions—to allow the body to catch up to all the work that has been done. This is where the evaluation process begins. To emphasize the point: Gains are made during the deloading or recovery weeks.
Adapted from H. The stress of life London: Longmans Green. No matter the outcome of the tests. Later in the book chapter 9. The training plan needs to be adaptable based on the training demands of the discipline. In turn. The best approach is to obtain baseline numbers before the training program begins. To start training on the right footing. All athletes possess both strengths and weaknesses. For many sports e. The evaluation process covers both the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of biomotor abilities: If instructors and trainers become well versed in the general subjects of athletic ability biomotor development.
Max aerobic speed stopwatch Upper-body Push-up test Tennis ball strength and strength endurance Core stability Plank test None Shoulder mobility Apley scratch test Tape measure or ruler Hip. In addition. Long shuttle: If using a Vertec device.
In this case. Extend one arm to a maximal vertical reach and mark in inches or centimeters if you use metric the standing reach value based on the slats of the Vertec. Stand as tall as possible beneath the device. All white slats are one-half inch. Regardless of the method used. The method preferred by many strength and conditioning coaches. The power tests presented in this section help individualize a training program. Depending on the equipment used.
Two vertical jumps using a jump mat are included here—one with a countermovement and one without. Performing the two different jumps enables you to determine more specifically the type of training that the athlete may need. In contrast. The colors of the slats signify a specific measurement. Start with your feet separated at a jumping width about hip-width apart as in figure 2.
Record the average height of the three jumps. Perform three trials. Move into a squat figure 2. Fully extend one arm to reach as high as possible and land figure 2. Repeat for three trials. Subtract the beginning maximal reach value to determine the vertical jump value.
Extend one arm and reach as high as possible figure 2. Hold the squat for two seconds. Reset into a ready position. This mark indicates your beginning maximal reach.
At the apex of the jump. Equipment Chalk. Stand tall and extend one arm overhead as high as possible. As with the jump mat version. Swiftly drop into a squat figure 2. Use a tape measure to measure the distance between your reach height and your jump height. Mark the wall with the chalk at the highest point you can reach figure 2. Perform three trials and record your average value.
All that is needed is a tape measure. If the athlete jumps farther with the countermovement than without it. Drop quickly into a squat position figure 2. Broad Jump With Countermovement Equipment Tape measure Procedure Stand at the front of the tape with your feet hip-width apart figure 2.
Perform three trials and average the results. Stick the landing and measure from the back heel figure 2. Average the distance. Perform three trials at each distance. Explode out of the squat and jump as far as possible.
Measure out the two distances—10 and 20 yards or meters. The runner starts in a two-point stance with the lead foot on the start line. Drop into a squat position and hold the squat for two seconds. Quickly accelerate to the right and run past the starting line middle cone. When a martial artist can control the body while moving laterally. Repeat the drill but this time start to the left.
Average the two times. The more agile the martial artist is. Immediately change direction and sprint 10 yards meters to the left to the far cone.
The timer starts the stopwatch on your initial movement and stops the stopwatch when you run through the last line. Run 5 yards meters to the right and touch the line where the cone is with your right hand. Pro Shuttle Equipment Three cones. Begin at the first cone in a three-point stance figure 2. Accelerate as quickly as possible to the cone positioned at the 5-yard -meter mark.
Touch the start line with your right hand. Touch the line with the right hand and sprint back through the start line. Rest for 90 seconds. Equipment Four cones. Touch the line with your right hand and quickly return to the start line. To get even more sense of body control. Average the times of the two trials. The timer starts the watch on your first movement and stops the watch as you pass the start line for the final time. Run to a tennis ball. Follow a 1: Figure 2.
Spider Drill Equipment Five tennis balls. Compare the two trials and note differences in coordination. Pick up all five balls. All tennis balls should be about seven yards from each other and the two on the same side as the basket should be seven yards from the basket left and right.
Place a basket at the starting point. It also creates a highly competitive environment when multiple athletes perform the drill together. Stand in an athletic position at the starting point. You can retrieve the balls in any order. The goal is to produce similar numbers from first trial to second. Repeat twice more for a total of yards. Equipment Two cones. One great way to give the martial artist a sense of his or her ability to repeat high-intensity efforts is to use the yard or -meter shuttle.
The timer starts the stopwatch on your initial movement and stops the stopwatch when you cross the finish line. Touch the cone with your right hand. Rest for three times as long as it took you to complete the test.
Per- forming the test is as simple as going to the local high school track. Cooper Test Equipment Track. Developing a broad aerobic base enables the martial artist to tolerate a higher workload of intensive effort. Run as many laps as possible for 12 minutes. With your hands at shoulder width and your elbows out slightly from your sides.
Once contact is made. Place the tennis ball on the ground at the level of the sternum. Do as many repetitions as possible. To test this capacity. The stronger and more stable the midsection is. The timer begins the stopwatch once you are in position and stops it when you demonstrate instability three times in any of the following ways: Your elbows should be under your shoulders.
Your hips. The maximum time for the plank test is 60 seconds. Note any asym- metries. Apley Scratch Test The Apley scratch test provides a great way to check shoulder range of motion. Repeat with the same motions on the opposite sides and again measure the distance between the fists.
Equipment None Procedure Stand tall. The opposite elbow is flexed with the humerus rotated internally and the shoulder extended figure 2. Externally rotate the humerus and flex the shoulder and elbow.
If any pain is felt. From this position. Note the depth of the squat. Perform five squats. The depth of the squat is determined based on the position of the tops of the thighs in the lowest squat position in relation to the ground: To this end. If you experience pain or issues in controlling the landing. Jump one rep- etition at a time and try to stick the landing with minimal collapse of the knee. If an athlete lacks sufficient strength and stability.
The primary knee ligaments that provide stability to the joint include the anterior cruciate ligament ACL. The risk of injury to these ligaments increases if joint integrity is not optimal.
Perform five hops on your right leg. High-risk athletes should prioritize single-leg strength and balance exercises. The ideal is to test two or three times per year to help monitor all performance qualities as they can change over the training year.
After you have collected testing results. The warm-up is performed systematically to allow for optimal prepar- ation prior to both training and competition.
To that end. To allow for the best possible numbers. Retesting determines whether training is truly help- ing the athlete achieve the desired goals.
Due to the lack of sufficient data specific to various martial artists. We now know that a sound. The active dynamic warm-up presented here consists of a series of exercises. The way in which a martial artist prepares indicates how he or she will perform.
Chapter 3 Dynamic Warm-Ups and Flexibility Once you have completed the initial testing and prepared an individual needs analysis. For many warm-ups. All of these are good forms of exercise. Many warm-ups consist of arbitrary exercises. This perspective enables us to see that the warm-up provides a chance to lay a broad foundation of skills.
At that point. He or she applies the skill poorly or perhaps does not even attempt it. In the first stage—unconscious incompetence—the new skill is intro- duced. All of the series in the muscle activation category should be done with intent and focus.
In the final stage—unconscious competence—the skill has become automatic. In the third stage—conscious competence—the athlete can reproduce the skill.
At this point. Whether learning a new submission technique. Each exercise description includes a list of the main muscles focused on by that exercise. In the second stage—conscious incompetence—the athlete is no longer consumed by apprehension but still cannot perform the skill. These exercises provide low-intensity activation of the hips and core in order to lay a foundation of mobility and stability prior to more intensive warm-up exercises.
The earlier an athlete understands the how and why of an exercise. Some stages last longer than others. He or she does. This four-stage model of motor-skill development explains why teaching is imperative for performance training. Muscle Activation The preparation series begins with muscle activation exercises.
For many athletes. The warm-up sequence presented here follows a three-stage progression: The four stages are unconscious incompetence. At the end of the range. Figure 3. The range of motion is limited to what you can control without moving other joints. Move one thigh out to the side in abduction figure 3. The hands are directly under the shoulders.
Switch legs and perform five repetitions with the new leg. Fire Hydrant Muscle Focus Tensor fasciae latae. This setup is used for all Figure 3. Complete five repetitions. Begin in a kneeling position with six points of contact with the ground: Make sure that no additional movement comes from the spine or upper body.
Move one knee in a circular motion figure 3. Slightly draw one knee toward the head into hip flexion figure 3.
Move the thigh back into hip extension while maintaining a degree angle at the knee figure 3. Hold for a two-second count without moving any other joints. Externally rotate the thigh and abduct the leg as far as possible figure 3. Hold for a two-second count. Fully extend one leg straight back with the toes pulled toward the shin figure 3. Slowly lower the spine into an extended position while tilting the hips figure 3.
Slowly arch the spine as high as possible while tucking the hips figure 3. Brace the core and with minimal movement of the spine figure 3. Maintain a braced core position to avoid a lateral drop in the pelvis and minimize too much lumbar extension and switch sides figure 3. Lie in a fully extended position with the ears. Brace the core. Perform five repeti- tions. The body orientation varies between prone.
All of the exercises are performed while lying on the ground. Perform five repetitions. Tighten the thigh of the bottom leg. Brace the core and move the top leg into a hip-flexed position figure 3. Tighten the thigh and gluteus maximus of the left leg while pulling the toes toward the shin and lifting the leg two inches about five centimeters off the floor. Slightly abduct the thigh to 20 degrees figure 3. Brace the core and extend the right arm out to the side as in one side of the letter T figure 3.
Anchor the heels into the ground and slowly pivot the opposite knee to the opposite heel figure 3. Alternate sides and com- plete eight repetitions per side. The pivot points of the movement should be the heels. Anchor the heels to the ground and slowly pivot the opposite knee to the opposite heel figure 3. Flex the torso over the lead thigh and reach the opposite arm to maximize the stretch on the upper extremity. Slowly return the hips to the ground and repeat.
Complete eight repetitions. Anchor the heels into the ground and slowly push straight through the heels to extend the hips while bracing the core figure 3. Ankle Rockers Muscle Focus Gastrocnemius. Once at the apex of the toe position. Complete all repetitions with the intent of maximizing the range of motion while maintaining good mechanics. Perform eight repetitions of all exercises at a slow.
Rock the body weight forward up to the toes as high as possible figure 3. Ensure that the knees are in line with the toes and that the heels remain flat on the ground. Set the hips back and slowly lower into the squat position figure 3. Reverse direc- tion and move the hips up while extending the knees figure 3. This part of the exercise provides a great stretch for the hamstrings. Grab the toes and slowly lower the hips toward the heels figure 3.
This part of the exercise is fantastic for working on ankle range of motion. Extend the arms straight out to the sides in a T position figure 3. Alternate sides and complete eight repetitions per side. While maintaining a flat-footed stance. Rotate to one side as far as possible while keeping the feet flat and looking at the ground figure 3. Bend at the waist while maintaining a flat back figure 3.
Hold for two counts. Set the shoulders down and back. Perform eight repetitions of each exercise. Flair the shoulder blades far away from the spine 3. The series should be performed slowly and deliberately with great intent and focus. Fully extend the arms with the fingers toward the ground. Bend at the waist so that the torso is parallel to the ground.
Return the arms to the sides and flair the shoulder blades away from the spine. Fully extend the arms with the fingers toward the ground figure 3. Raise the arms laterally to the T position and hold for a two-second count figure 3. Row the elbows to the plane of the back with the elbow and shoulder joints at degree angles figure 3. Bend over at the waist so that the torso is parallel to the ground.
Internally rotate the arms to the row position and extend the arms fully to the start position. Flair the shoulder blades away from the spine. Remember that joint position dictates muscle function. Alternate legs and complete five repetitions on each leg. Drive the down foot through the ground while tightening the gluteus maximus. Knee Hug Muscle Focus Gluteus maximus.
Lift one leg toward the chest while maintaining a fully extended down leg with that foot flat figure 3. The exercises included in this series develop the biomotor abilities of balance.
Grab one foot with the opposite hand and pull the thigh back past the hip while pulling the heel toward the gluteus maximus figure 3. While pulling the knee toward the nose. Leg Cradle Muscle Focus Piriformis.
Maintain extension in the down leg and drive that foot through the ground while tightening the gluteus maximus. Alternate legs and com- plete five repetitions on each leg.
Pull one leg up and rotate it externally 45 degrees figure 3. Complete five repetitions with each leg. Use the hand on the same side to push into the outside of the knee of the lifted leg figure 3. Use the opposite hand to push into the knee of the lifted leg figure 3. Lift one leg to 90 degrees of hip flexion. Alternate legs and complete five Figure 3. Alternate legs and complete Figure 3. Stabilize through the core and the down leg to avoid rotating the torso.
Kick one leg forward while reaching the opposite hand toward the toes figure 3. Keep the down leg straight and the torso tall to maxi- mize the stretch in the hamstrings. Hinge at the waist while maintaining a flat back. Once at full stretch. Reach down toward the lead foot to stretch the hamstrings figure 3. Slowly walk the feet forward toward the hands.
Push the hands firmly into the ground with the arms fully extended figure 3. Walk the hands forward to get back to the push-up position or into hip extension if not painful. Walk far enough to feel a comfortable stretch on the hamstrings figure 3. Walk as far as possible without bending the knees. Step into an exaggerated lunge posi- tion and place the hand opposite the front leg on the ground. Keep the torso. Push with the front leg and stand tall with the feet together.
Alternate legs and complete five repetitions per leg figure 3. Bring the elbow on the same side as the front leg to the ankle of the front leg figure 3. Keep the core braced and maintain good balance and focus. Return to the standing position. Alternate legs and perform five repetitions per leg. Slowly bend at the waist while the torso and the unloaded leg move to a position in which they are parallel to the ground figure 3. Step forward with one leg. Increase momentum and distance with each jumping jack.
Perform jumping jacks figure 3. For that reason.
Push off of the balls of the feet to drive the body laterally while simultaneously swinging the arms from hip position to overhead. Continue for 20 yards or meters down and another 20 back for a total of These exercises develop not only balance. Rest for 20 seconds. Push off of the balls of the feet to drive the body laterally while simultaneously swinging the arms from hip position to the overhead position.
Perform jumping jacks with the legs and the arms. Rotate the torso and hips while moving laterally figure 3. Rest for 20 seconds and repeat by moving in the other direction. Continue for 20 yards or meters down. Continue for 20 yards or meters down and 20 back for a total of 40 yards. Drive the arms and legs for 30 yards or meters. Walk into a skipping action figure 3. Keep the posture tall and the core braced to maximally drive through the hips.
Kick and double-bounce on the down leg as in a small jump-rope hop. Continue for 20 yards or meters. Aggressively drive the kicking leg straight in front of the hips figure 3.
Drive for 20 yards or meters down and 20 back for a total distance of 40 yards. Push laterally on the trailing leg the right leg if you are moving to the left and quickly get the foot back to the ground figure 3. Rap- idly move the feet in figure 3. Repeat for two sets of six seconds each with 20 seconds of recovery between sets. While skipping laterally. Rest for 20 seconds and repeat while facing the other direction.
Continue for 5 yards or meters down and 5 back for a total of Skip for 10 yards or meters. While skip- ping backward. Over time. In addition to warming up. An athlete who does not invest the needed time in a full warm-up must understand that his or her potential for injury is therefore much greater.
Once the athlete has learned the skills and rehearsed the warm-up. Effective ways to cool down include the muscle activation and dynamic flexibility exercises. An athlete who has gone through the full active dynamic warm-up may notice asymmetries in range of motion between the left and right limbs during the muscle activation and dynamic flexibility exercises. A cool-down not only decreases core body temperature and heart rate but also reestablishes a good range of motion after a taxing practice.
As the athlete gets used to the process. A martial artist who is in better condition can express more speed. The transit-mobility series requires great coordination and balance. An ath- lete may also have difficulty holding core stability and maintaining body alignment. If doing an active dynamic warm-up every day seems redundant.
The transit mobility exercises especially help lay the skill foundation for the later qualities of speed and agility while also providing good general conditioning.
The better conditioned an athlete is. With this challenge in mind. Track- ing the resting heart rate gives the athlete the tools to chart his or her The confusion results in large part from misinterpretations of current research that tend to sell a trend instead of a science-based practice. Building a great foundation of conditioning also helps the athlete maintain coordination longer.
Despite these distinct advantages. In some cases. Chapter 4 Exercises for Base Conditioning In all martial arts. The martial artist who can throw punches and kicks with more power in the later portion of a round or a competition enjoys a massive advantage. If two martial artists possess similar skill sets.
All of the energy systems work at the same time. Charting the trend of resting heart rates over the course of training is a good indication if the conditioning program is helping. As training stress accumulates.
If the training was correct and the rest was strategically timed.