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The play begins, as the arc begins, with the Mother. Its Minister of Education, Fernando de los Rios, funded the theater project of which Lorca was artistic director the project was called La barraca. Hence, at the end of the play, both would prefer death than endure the death-in-life of separation. It is almost as if they are not to blame for their surprising actions because their blood was too powerful to resist. The POVs were a bit all over the place.

Clearly, the Mother embraces and supports the widely opposed roles given to men and women and the curtailing of her considerable powers that this entails.

In this respect, her stoicism and sense of duty is like quietism, or the passive acceptance of things that can or should be changed. Mother-in-Law Leonardo's Mother-in-Law is known as a woman who was scorned by her husband.

Her daughter is soon to suffer the same plight. This generational repetition creates a sense of inevitability in regards to these women's situation. It is as if there will always be those who are scorned. The Mother-in-Law is companion and support to her daughter. Neighbor The Neighbor Woman provides important information for the audience; information that neither the Mother nor the Bridegroom can know if events are to have proceeded as far as they have when the play opens.

Thus, a family outsider must appear in order for this information to be presented. The neighbor's conversation with the Mother in the first act apprises the audience of the Bride's past connection with Leonardo, such that it also comes out that Leonardo is of the dreaded Felix family, members of which are responsible for the deaths of the Mother's husband and son.

This information establishes, from the play's start, a sense of foreboding and imminent tragedy. Servant The Bride's Servant is, in contrast to the Father, quite aware of what is happening in the Bride's house. Throughout the play, the Servant attempts to rein in the Bride's feelings by instilling calm and caution in the young woman. Thus, for all of her enthusiastic participation in the wedding events, it is sensed that she is aware that things are not as they seem.

She makes every effort to protect the Bride from herself and from Leonardo, begging Leonardo, at one point, to let the young woman alone: His first words are: For example, he states that "they'll kill them," and that when the "moon comes out they'll see them. Wife Leonardo's Wife is clearly wronged by her husband's and the Bride's actions. Yet, there is little sympathy felt for this character. Her failure to win substantive sympathy is partly, at least, due to the degree to which she accepts, indeed almost expects, her fate.

Yet, her passivity is crucial for the overall sense of the play. Through this character the manner in which these women are largely dependent upon the actions of men for their happiness is made clear. Her passivity is a necessary feature for a play, which contains strong criticism regarding the lesser social freedoms of women at the time.

Her passivity is therefore a symptom of a society in which women learn early and well, and better than men, how to curb their desires and wants. Young Girls Individual, paired, or groups of young girls appear at various points in Blood Wedding.

For example, on the day of the wedding, girls enter and exit singing or chanting wedding songs and verses. This accompaniment helps to create the appropriate stately but festive wedding atmosphere. At the end of the play, two girls open the final scene winding a skein a red wool, which reminds the audience of blood. They sing of death but, later, they clearly do not have specific information about the wedding, the hunt, at its outcome.

As characters within the events of the play, their actions and knowledge are realistic, but when they serve as figures who comment on action, they might be drawn outside of events so that they can be all-knowing commentators. Young Men The young men serve as counterparts to the young girls during the wedding scenes.

These youths' function to represent the future of all young men just as the young girls exemplify the future of all young women. Interacting as they do on a wedding day, the play suggests how both the girls and these boys will, one day, marry themselves. Together, the young men and girls contribute to a sense of the unceasing cycles of life, in which marriage occurs as routinely as does birth and death.

First, there is death as the end, and the enemy, of mortal life. Death as an inevitable end that must be accepted is developed through the character of the Mother, who often laments the deaths of loved ones, while stoically enduring these painful losses nevertheless.

There is more to this first theme of death than death's inevitability, however. The passionate bond of the lovers gives shape to another aspect. Their bond represents human life in general as being characterized by our connections to others. Death, therefore, kills not only our physical body, it also puts an end to that which makes us human. In claiming a person' s life, Death sunders human bonds.

Lorca introduces and develops this of death in the actions of his characters. For example, it is learned at the play's outset that the Mother's husband and one son were violently killed. One way the Mother mourns these events is by pointing to the fact that the killers reside seemingly content in jail.

Not only do the killers escape real punishment, but she, the wholly innocent one, is the one being punished by having been deprived of her loved ones, and they, the loved ones, are being punished by having been deprived of their share of life.

Death does not simply end life, it is anathema to it by destroying precious connections. Hence the play's characterization of death as a cruel and cold beggar woman who acts as the lovers' "enemy" by revealing their whereabouts to the hunters.

If death is anathema to life, then being deprived of a full life is like death-in-life. The theme of death-in-life is generally most closely associated with the female characters, although it is also closely associated with Leonardo and the Bride, in particular.

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It is linked to Leonardo and the Bride since, to them, not to be able to love each other is not to live fully. Hence, at the end of the play, both would prefer death than endure the death-in-life of separation. As the First Woodcutter says, "Better dead with the blood drained away than alive with it rotting.

For example, at one point in the play, the Mother asks the Bride: It is a death-in-life because these exaggerated limits on women's social roles prevents them from pursuing all of the joys and varieties life has to offer. The men come and go; but the women are mostly at home. While the women are depicted as having many responsibilities and solid social stature, they are nevertheless firmly excluded from deciding how the community is run and what its rules, laws, and traditions will be.

The stark separation of male and female spheres no longer seems like fairly divided work when the differing nature of the work is considered. If women cannot contribute to making the rules, then the rules might not accommodate their needs. If their needs are not accommodated then they cannot live fully and must live a death-in-life.

The Individual versus Society The theme of the individual versus society is central to Blood Wedding. Leonardo and the Bride find their respective social positions intolerable and rebel against their fates. They break the bonds of marriage and destroy the equilibrium of the community. The way the characters are named in Lorca's play reveals a great deal about how the playwright conceives this problem. With the exception of Leonardo, who instigates the disequilibrium, none of the characters are given proper names.

Rather, they are designated according to their societal position or role. The Bride, therefore, is on her way to become a Wife or a Mother. The Bridegroom, besides being a son, is on his way to become a Husband or a Father. What this suggests is the manner in which, in some deep sense, there are no real individuals in societies, insofar as individualism entails total self-determination.

In other words, to live in harmony with other humans, human beings in fact conform to a limited number of roles and possibilities that accord with the rules and agreements of social living and life. Hence, it is only Leonardo, who contests these rules, who can be individualized by being given a proper name.

These views will ring true as long as there is a need for persons to assert themselves against their society when its institutions or laws do not allow for the reasonable happiness and creativity of its members. Since the play generates sympathy for the passion of the lovers, it can be seen to generate sympathy for the forces of change.

The play opens within the house of the Bridegroom in a room that is painted yellow. The Bridegroom will be associated with yellow throughout the play. This color symbolizes his wealth, since gold is yellow, and his vigor, since yellow is the color of wheat, from which bread, the food of life, comes. It also symbolizes his eventual death, since yellow is the color of his lips when he is dead at the play's end. Leonardo's and the Bride's homes, however, are characterized by the color pink, a variant on red which is the color of passion and of vibrant life or blood.

They are, certainly, the characters who are the most passionate in the drama. The final scene takes place in a stark white dwelling, as if to suggest a place bleached of life and hope. The stage directions say that the room's white lineaments should resemble the architecture of a church.

A church is the place where the rituals of birth and death are routinely commemorated; hence, it is an appropriate place for the mother to learn of her last son's demise and to accept her future drained of happiness. In contrast to these dwellings, is the forest to which the lovers flee. The forest has long been that setting in literature where society's rules mutate, change, break down, or no longer apply. It is a wild place, beyond human-made, communal order.

These lovers, clearly, cannot be together within their community, and so their only recourse is to attempt to escape its bounds. Their true home, in some sense, therefore, is this forest.

Modernism The movement in the arts known as Modernism was an international, metropolitan set of movements.

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Impressionism and Dadaism in the arts, stream-of-consciousness techniques in the novel, and atonality in music are some of its central artistic movements and forms.

Other modernist movements were Symbolism and Surrealism, to which Lorca was close. Lorca's play is a modernist play. Like Picasso's paintings, it departs from realism, or the highly naturalistic and realistic sets, plots, and action that dominate European and Spanish theater in the decades immediately preceding this set of movements.

Lorca's modernism entails the attempt to return the "drama" to drama by making the theatrical event into a feast for the senses and the deepest emotions. The stark settings, the chanting, and the songs and music all contribute to an event which is designed to move an audience through all of the visual, aural, and dramatic means available to the dramatist.

Chorus A chorus in a play is made up of a group of commentators, chanters, or singers not directly involved in the play's action. The chorus's role is either to comment on the action, to present the views of the community regarding the events, or, simply, to lyrically accompany action. Choruses of all of these types were common in Classical-age Greek plays. Lorca's play adapts from this tradition. A single girl, or a pair or groups of young girls, for example, will enter and circulate at various points, singing or chanting songs and commentary.

In the final scene of the play, two young girls sing about how brief mortal life is and what might have happened at the wedding. Their contribution is primarily a lyrical accompaniment to the action, as the mother waits in fear to hear about the fate of her son. The Spanish populace, however, had little faith in this regime as the country was hampered by persistent and grave economic instability.

Clearly, a change in the political and economic order of things was necessary. Widely opposed forces vied for contention. In various parts of the country, where industrialization had taken place, workers determined to ensure their proper treatment and compensation and to enhance their social status.

These groups were eager to see a left-wing, socialist government take the reins of Spain. These groups were forward-looking in cultural terms. A society still imbued with classist notions, for example, was not a society able to accommodate a new working and middle class made up of former peasants who would no longer tolerate the old class hierarchy.

This old hierarchy heavily favored the aristocracy and educated classes. These new social groups were also staunchly anti-monarchical, and they were also secular in view.

To the opposing groups of Spaniards, these forces of change represented a drastic and fearful break from centuries of tradition, whether in social, cultural, or political terms.

These other groups wished to maintain a traditional class structure, the succession of kings and queens, and the Catholic Church as a centrally shaping social and educational force. Lorca was on the side of change. His relations with the left-wing government voted into power in were cordial. Its Minister of Education, Fernando de los Rios, funded the theater project of which Lorca was artistic director the project was called La barraca. The Democratic Republic versus The Dictatorship The political scene in Spain was highly changeable during the late s and early s.

A left-wing government, elected in , was voted in again in after a brief return to a right-wing government in between. This effort was effectively halted, however, as one of the leaders of Spain's traditionalist factions staged a coup d'etat, or overthrow of the government, in A bloody three-year civil war ensued, with the forces of Franco finally winning. As Lorca was clearly aligned with the forces of change, he was an obvious political target at the time. He declared his solidarity with workers and the republic on a number of public occasions.

His murder was an act of terror, designed to quell the spirit of those who contested Franco's right to claim power by force instead of by election. The Civil War attracted a number of foreigners, both men and women alike, sympathetic to the Republic. In democratic regimes around the world, the Republican effort would come to be known as "The Good Fight. He had not yet had a major theatrical success. Blood Wedding changed this. On opening night, the Teatro Beatriz in Madrid was filled to capacity, and in the audience were Spain's leading intellectuals, artists, and critics.

The play was an outstanding success. It was interrupted numerous times by extended applause, and the playwright was compelled to emerge twice during its course to take a bow for the wildly appreciative audience. It made its way fairly quickly to France and Russia, as well. It found its greatest foreign audiences, however, in the Latin American countries, in Argentina in particular.

Lorca traveled to the Argentine capital, Buenos Aires, in , where he, his lectures and his plays were most favorably received. Blood Wedding is certainly the most enduringly popular of Lorca's plays. It has long been considered to represent the maturing of Lorca's dramatic talent, along with the other plays of what is known as the "rural trilogy.

Candelas Newton, in Understanding Garcia Lorca, sums up this long-standing critical opinion: Of the three rural tragedies, the last one written, The House of Bemarda Alba, is considered to represent the culmination of his talents, in that he relies less on poetry and poetic interludes to create his effects. These shorter, experimental pieces do not make up all of his dramatic work before Blood Wedding, but they do characterize it.

However, as Newton also points out, recent scholarly work is revising this traditional view of Lorca's work and career. The experimental pieces are now being reconsidered: However, all of these studies, in some way, examine and analyze the formal and thematic elements of the work. Formal approaches explore Lorca's dramatic techniques, such as his incorporation of chant, song, and poetry. According to Gwynne Edwards in Dramatists in Perspective: Spanish Theater in the Twentieth Century, Lorca's "fondness for [the] integration of different art forms" stems from his reverence for Symbolist theater.

This Symbolist movement, along with Surrealism, Edwards states, are the contemporaneous modernist movements to which Lorca was closest many of his experimental works are surrealistic. Other critics, such as Herbert Ramsden in his book Bodas de Sangre, mine the rich field of imagery and symbolism in Lorca's play.

Ramsden, as do many other critics, points out that Lorca is, above all, a poet "of the concrete. Or, death appears in the play as an actual character.

This avoidance of abstraction and this reliance on the concrete, highly visual image, is part of what Lorca derives from the Symbolist poets and dramatists he so avidly read. Other studies of Blood Wedding focus on the play's various themes, such as passion, fate, or death. Gwynne Edward's book, Lorca: The Theater Beneath the Sand, contains a lengthy chapter on the drama's major themes. Other approaches to Blood Wedding focus on its literary antecedents and influences, whether in Greek tragedy, classical Spanish theater, or contemporaneous developments in theater.

These studies often remark on Lorca's reputation as a thoroughly Spanish poet and dramatist, in the sense that his style and subject matter seem to draw heavily from indigenous traditions and mores. These studies, however, must reconcile Lorca's closeness to broad European trends in the arts. In the introduction to Lorca: According to Duran, Lorca's "task was to assimilate [the new] movements without destroying the Spanish tradition, or rather to assimilate them in a way that would allow this tradition to make itself felt again, to acquire a new vitality.

Spain was not, during the s and s, a country in which a citizen did not know his or her political mind. Lorca, in this respect, was staunchly on the side of Republicanism, and deeply committed to policies which would improve the lot of the country's poorest citizens. Lorca's adoption of the "popular idiom," and of folklore and legend, takes on a political significance in this light.

It announces his belief that the culture which arises from a country's people is as rich as any culture produced by an educated elite. In the following essay, Dell'Amico examines how Garcia Lorca's story celebrates community, social life and living, at the same time that it points to the necessity of rebellion in situations where social laws and mores are oppressive or unduly limiting.

One of Federico Garcia Lorca's most notable features is how his protagonists are named. With the exception of Leonardo, the characters are designated according to their societal position or role; hence, there is a Mother, a Father, a Bridegroom, and so forth. This particular practice of naming de-individualizes his protagonists. They are made to seem less important as individuals than as social beings. This technique suggests that the play advocates the appropriateness and inevitability of communal, social life.

Yet, troubling the stability of this theme is the naming of the Bride's lover, Leonardo. In choosing to individualize a single character in this way, the play advances the possibility that social customs, and the conformity they require, might be a problem. Clearly, the reader is to sympathize with Leonardo's rebellion and the lovers' desire to be together. The play thus poses the following questions: Is it ever appropriate to break social laws?

Are such acts always destructive and antisocial? This essay examines these problems of social life and an individual's transgression of social mores. The play's simultaneous celebration and criticism of social life and conformity finds expression in its presentation of two different types of communality, one that is rendered in an attractive light, and another that seems ominous or oppressive.

The first type is a development of human sociality as part of what is beautiful about life on earth, and the other type points to a variety of social conformity that is like ethical quietism, or the refusal to stand up to laws and beliefs that are repressive or oppressive.

For example, in including only a single "Mother" character, a single "Father" character, and a single "Mother-in-law" character, and so on, the play likens the broad community within the play to a single family. The family, whether in its extended or more limited, contemporary guises and arrangements, is still and always has been a universal human institution.

It is an institution in which each member is supposed to be succored and protected by the others. Likening the play's society to a family thus suggests its naturalness, inevitability, and the manner in which social life is designed to ensure the well-being of each of its members. Individuals wither, left to their own, lonely devices, the play suggests, and a person is only healthy and happy when he or she is a part of different communities and groups. This idea of the wondrousness of human sociality is also imparted by the play's theme of social life as that which is utterly natural in an organic sense, as natural as the growing of trees or the falling of rain.

This sense of the naturalness of human interdependence is effected through the drama's linking of humans to things in nature, in conjunction with its focus on the community's closeness to the land.

For instance, the Mother refers to her now dead husband as a "carnation," and to this husband and a son together as "beautiful flowers. These simple and earthy metaphors for human beings gain full significance once they are considered against the play's rural backdrop.

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The community's wealth and stability derive, clearly, from the agricultural potential of the land. This land the men work diligently. A small plot of land not owned by either of these families permanently divides the properties belonging to the families of the Bride and Bridegroom, who should never have married.

This detail suggests that even the land, or the earth itself, decrees that the union should not take place. If it were meant to take place, then their properties would not be divided. The play, in this way, imparts the sense that the rhythms, bounties, and terrain of the earth itself determine the rhythm and shape of these peoples' lives. The community and how it lives are utterly natural events; human community is as beautiful and inevitable as carnations or wheat.

While communal social life clearly is sanctioned and celebrated by the play, other elements point to the necessity of rebelling against social roles and rules. If such rebellion brings about tragedy within a community, this is understood to occur only because a community has developed in ways that thwart the otherwise reasonable inclinations of its members.

This idea comes about through the story of the lovers, the Bride and Leonardo. The circumstances that pertain to the original relationship between the lovers are shrouded in mystery. It is never known why the Bride and Leonardo never married.

Regardless, what is significant about the action of the play is that the Bride and Leonardo desire each other above all others, and find themselves enchained in arrangements neither can tolerate. Leonardo's dismissive behavior towards his wife, and his mother-in-law's history, tell the reader a great deal about such arrangements. Like her mother before her, Leonardo's wife is a scorned woman, a woman never truly loved by her husband: I'm already cast off by you.

But I have a son. And another coming. And so it goes. My mother's fate was the same. Unloved and not being able to love, they are nevertheless bound within marriages they cannot escape.

As frustrating as Leonardo's wife's situation is, so is the Bride's, before she escapes and enjoys, however briefly, some satisfaction of her true desires. When the Mother and Bridegroom leave her house after the betrothal meeting, she expresses her sense of her intolerable social limitations to the Servant.

When the Servant playfully asks to see the Bride's betrothal presents, the young woman cannot bring herself to be obliging. It is clear that the thought of her impending marriage is torture.

Her mood is foul, and so she shakes off the Servant's kind hands violently. Her violence is so extreme that the woman exclaims over her strength: I wish I were. As an unmarried young woman, she can in no way consider leaving her father's house to seek, for instance, forgetfulness in a new life in some town or city far away. She is bound by the rules of decency to remain in her childhood home until she moves to the home of a husband. There is never to be any independence for her; she always must be under the close protection of a man.

Related to these limitations are the indignities suffered by Leonardo's wife in a world in which flight from the bonds of marriage, or separation or divorce, are unthinkable and profoundly shameful acts. This gallery of thwarted female characters tells the story of Catholic Spain in Lorca's time. Divorce was simply not an option; it was not legal. The depth of the lovers' passion for each other suggests the degree to which it is an authentic problem, and not merely unthinking or selfish willfulness of a destructive or antisocial nature.

The lovers are like the famous Shakespearean literary pair, Romeo and Juliet. Their rebellion, like Romeo and Juliet's, is the sincere rebellion of individuals who must step outside of their socially designated roles and assert their individual wills. Romeo and Juliet's rebellion teaches their respective families the folly of their continued mutual hatred. The particular rebellion recounted in Lorca' s play, however, signified to many of Lorca's audiences the playwright's criticism of socially conservative Spain.

His conservative detractors saw in his presentation of the Bride's sullenness and depression an implicit feminist plea to allow women to become more independent. They saw in his treatment of the passive and downtrodden wife of Leonardo a plea for divorce legislation. These conservative groups in Spanish society were outraged by such intimations of change, and this outrage fueled, in part, the events that led to Lorca's murder by right-wing sympathizers in Meditation on social living and individuality suggests that while the play celebrates the fact of each person's dependence and indebtedness to others and to shared rules, these obligations can only be demanded by a society whose rules are just.

Blood Wedding reminds its readers that while social living is natural, it is still made up of laws, mores, and regulations that are made and shaped by human beings. When these laws become oppressive, they must be contested so that they will be changed.

Lorca scholars have interpreted the play's theme of a love triangle as an allegory of Spain's modernization and the cultural crisis manifested prior to the Spanish Civil War , ominously anticipated in this drama of family murders and forbidden love. Viewed from a different perspective, the play's mythical cluster represented by the Moon, a Horse, and Death, unveils a symbolic dimension of madness, lustful passion, and the price paid when social conventions and family interests are not obeyed.

Scholarly interpretations aside, you will note that the title of Lorca's drama plays on the ironic meaning of "blood weddings," on the one hand as a violent aftermath i. After their elopement, the Moon declares: They did well to run away. They had been lying to each other. But in the end, blood was stronger! Margarita Galban's adaptation divides the play in two acts as opposed to the original three , and allows Death and the Moon to intervene throughout the play, consequently intensifying the sequential and conflicting elements of the plot while creating a tragic subtext written in the language of maternal premonitions, symbolic pagan features and sacramental allusions.

The mother's language of mourning conjoins her erotic memories; when referring to her dead husband, she states: How can it be that something as small as a pistol or a knife can destroy a man who is like a bull? I'll never be quiet. Your grandfather left a son on every corner. That I like-men that are men, wheat that is wheat.

Desirous to change the subject, the son reminds his mother about his fiancee and his forthcoming marriage; the mother, not one to be discouraged, feels a stronger premonition: In the second scene, the mother learns through a neighbor that the fiancee's past boyfriend Leonardo Felix, now married to the fiancee's cousin belongs to the family who killed her husband and first-born son.

A dramatic pattern of doubles begins to surface with the theme of unhappy marriages: In subsequent scenes, Leonardo's growing detachment from his wife will find expression in the obsessive galloping to and from the future bride's home.

In acts that mirror each other, Leonardo denies his nocturnal wanderings when asked by his wife, while the former girlfriend also insists in denying Leonardo's nightly visits. But by the end of the first act, both Leonardo and the bride admit to the fatality of their attraction. From this point in the drama, a series of fast-paced actions will reveal that the mother's premonitions were justified.

Indeed, the only available ladder to social climbing in this pastoral setting appears to be a "good" marriage. You will note, for instance, that the play sketches a triple-tiered agrarian hierarchy composed of landed gentry whose domains include fertile vineyards e. Once grasped, this problematic generates a story that unfolds as follows: In addition, we learn that bride and bridegroom have been in courtship for three years, and that Leonardo married the bride's cousin two years back, consequently there is an overlapping year that suggests a period of ambivalence and contradictions in the soul of the bride.

Should she marry into poverty or into wealth? On the morning of her wedding, Leonardo addresses the bride and, oblivious to the situation, speaks reproachfully: Look back and refresh your memory!

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Two oxen and a tumbledown hut are almost nothing. That's what hurts. When asked by the bridegroom why they don't buy land, Leonardo's wife responds: And the way things are going.. He goes from one thing to another. He's very restless.

It is at this point, as well, that Lorca's dramatic art effectively sketches the onset of complications and obstacles that Leonardo and the bride must face and resolve.

Since the choice rests on the protagonist, the moral trajectory of the play is thus embodied in the bride who must choose between two men. And her choice will cause destruction but, in the process, will also resolve the play's major conflict: Unexpectedly, the bride undergoes two weddings, one traditional, and the second by elopement-with both resulting in the violent death of her two suitors.

When Leonardo's wife discovers the elopement, major changes occur in three characters: The first two characters change from peace-loving social stereotypes as has often been observed, only Leonardo has a first name into revenge-seeking characters who are moved by a sense of honor.

On the other hand, the bride far from offending her audience with a husband's betrayal-soon reaches tragic proportions, first through the nature of her frailty her own tragic flaw and, secondly, because her subsequent suffering far exceeds the expected punishment. She is both a virgin and a widow on the day of her wedding, which also coincides with the day of her twenty-second birthday.

Let's recall that the play opens with Death singing a brief "overture," with references to the Moon in a language of contradiction: The poetic diction of this overture gives expression to an ambivalent motherhood that borders on transgression lewd, but pure , and contextualizes the inner exile symbolized by the Gypsies, thus challenging our understanding of the play's Romantic theme, namely: Next to the language of motherhood that strongly characterizes Lorca's Yerma , and to the despair that leads to suicide in the play La casa de Bernarda Alba , Blood Wedding has instances of rhetorical expressions that construct a female sexuality and eroticism that are not necessarily limited to motherhood nor to an eagerness to leave an oppressive maternal household.

When Leonardo appears on the morning of the wedding, the bride admits the profundity of her attraction: I can't listen to your voice! It's as if I drank a bottle of anisette and fell asleep on a quilt of roses. And it draws me under, and I know I'm drowning, but I follow. The conclusion of the play discloses how importantly dramatic are the mother and the bride, for both mourn the men they loved.

And although the mother's role continues to be fundamental to the play's success and brilliantly acted by Margarita Lamas , as a character she will be overshadowed by the bride, thanks to the courage and honesty of her appeal.

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In a moment of dramatic eloquence and convincing dialogue, the mother and bride confront each other; admittedly, we are left with the impression that the latter wins the argument. Again, the moral victory is made with a language that the mother understands: You would have gone, too!

I was a woman consumed by fire, covered with open sores inside and out, and your son was a little bit of water from whom I hoped for children, land, health! But the other was a dark river filled with branches that brought close to me the whisper of its rushes and its murmuring song. Your son was what I wanted, and I have not deceived him. But the arm of the other dragged me-like the surge of the sea, like a mule butting me with his head-and would have dragged me always, always, always!

Even if I were old and all the sons of your son held me by the hair! At the conclusion of the play, the mother mourns the death of her son, but has gained a daughter: Listen to the concluding lines and you will hear the same song in the lips of the mother and bride-at this point easily understood as a leitmotiv that opens and closes the play speaking against weapons that cut lives before their time.

Roberto Cantii, in an essay for Drama for Students, Gale, A spate of international productions serve up the passionate depths of Garcia Lorca's plays. It's so black you have to feel your way down the aisle. Then a soft, dream-like spot appears upstage left and gradually brightens. Que bonita!

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A young man walks downstage, draped in white chiffon. No quiero! It looks like Carole Lombard," Buch complains to the costume designer.

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In a minute she's up on stage, snipping and pinning the fabric. Tonight is the pre-dress rehearsal for a long-overdue New York premiere. Written in by Spanish poet and playwright Federico Garcia Lorca, El Publico has had to wait almost 70 years to get produced in the same city where it was conceived.

Dubbed by Lorca his "impossible theatre" because of its technical difficulties and then-taboo theme homosexual love El Publico "disappeared" after Lorca's execution by Fascists during the Spanish Civil War.

When it reemerged, 20 years later, the play stayed unperformed for another whole decade. El Publico has since been published, translated and performed numerous times, but never until now, that is in New York. This year, to honor the th anniversary of Lorca's birth, Buch, and the company of which he is artistic director, Repertorio Espanol, is producing the still-subversive play. Staging El Publico is clearly an act of love for the company and a way for it to be judged in the international arena during Lorca's centennial year.

Throughout the world, from Buenos Aires to Tokyo, theatre groups are mounting tributes to the playwright, who was born in on June 5, , in Granada. Every one of his 15 plays is currently in production somewhere including Madrid, Brussels, Havana, Cairo, Lyon, Moscow and New York, among other cities.

Even his lesser-known plays the comedies, tragicomedies, puppet shows, and "experimental" works like El Publico are finally getting the attention they deserve. This year, Spain alone is hosting a vast array of events to commemorate Lorca, who remained censored there from the Civil War until Franco's death in There are festivals, poetry readings, dance performances, concerts, exhibitions and lectures dedicated to Lorca, offering the chance to see unusual productions like Lorca's short, experimental piece Buster Keaton's Bike Ride in Barcelona.

In the spirit of La Barraca, Lorca's traveling theatre group that brought classics to the poor during the early ' 30s, several companies are now touring rural Spain. An unprecedented number of puppet productions are scheduled, too. Lorca's work has long been venerated in the Spanish-speaking world.

As Buch puts it, "When he published his poems, The Gypsy Ballads, in , he became a torero, a bullfighter. Everyone in Spain knew his poems and quoted them. His friends and artistic collaborators included painter Salvador Dali, filmmaker Luis Bunuel and composer Manuel de Falla.

He remains beloved there to this day. But Lorca in translation is another matter entirely. What could Americans make of a play that included among its characters the Moon, personified as a woodcutter, and Death as a beggar?

Some American directors have been frightened off by supposedly difficult works like El Publico, and translation problems have dogged his plays.

One critic, reviewing Ted Hughes's version of Blood Wedding in London two years ago, said, "Its poetry at once flinty and florid is damnably hard to make work in English. The author, whose American visit in compelled him to write Poet in New York, a book containing poems like "Landscape of the Vomiting Multitudes," has an emotional temperature many on these shores find unnerving. Once famous for declaiming his writings at the drop of a hat, Lorca is vibrantly theatrical and emotional to the core.

The POVs were a bit all over the place. But iverall an OK easy read. I don't know of there's more books, but if there are I might give book 2 a try. It's too bad though there weren't so many likable characters in the story. We'll see how it all turns out. Having just flown in to live with her father for the summer, Anna Percy is the new girl in town.

She's not a big fan of her father, but he said he'd hook her up with a job at a local literary agency. Her first problem is that her dad's a dud. He starts off their "new" relationship by not picking her up at the airport and not meeting her for lunch as he promised. Some Dad he is. Her second problem is Cammie, Sam, and Dee. There's no way in Neiman Marcus they are going to let the new girl somehow win the love or lust or heartthrob Ben Birnbaum.

Her third problem is herself. Darcy, no matter what it costs. Only, her dreams may not hold up against the cutthroat methods of the A-List girls. She is competition in all the wrong ways. If anyone has a chance at the sort of wishes that money and power can't buy, it's her.

They start to see each other in a different light. There is so much more that happens that really puts you on the edge of your seat. ARC provided by author in exchange for an honest review. Sep 01, Tiffany rated it it was amazing. I've read the first two books in this series but haven't had a chance to read the other three.

There were things mentioned in this book that I didn't fully follow because they had happened in books It didn't make me like this one any less though. I was still able to enjoy the story. However, for someone new to the series I would recommend reading them all in order.

It was nice to see Jason "Jay" Felix finally find the girl who could give him the romance book toe curling kiss he was seeking, I've read the first two books in this series but haven't had a chance to read the other three. It was nice to see Jason "Jay" Felix finally find the girl who could give him the romance book toe curling kiss he was seeking, the one that made him see fireworks. I'm glad he was able to get his happily ever after.

What made it even better was his choice of bride. I think they were great together! I can't wait to read the follow-up stories of the girls Jay left behind. Sep 01, Margaret McGovern rated it really liked it.

Jay Jason is a rock star that has gone through numerous women. He decided he wanted to get married because his fellow rock star is getting married. He can act dumb and flighty but there is depth to him. Xan is the manager of Jays island resort. She's good at her job but gets easily annoyed by Jay until a cyclone hits thats where some things change.

Ms Carlton draws the reader to the characters and helps us understand wh 4. Ms Carlton draws the reader to the characters and helps us understand who they are and why they act the way they do. I received a free copy of this book solely in exchange for an 0 review.

I look forward to reading more books in the future by this author. Aug 31, Gale Canzoneri rated it it was amazing. My favorite quote is: You take that gift however he comes and you hold onto him. And when you mess up don't run away, face up to it and don't waste time. Lots of lessons to learn in this book.

At the same time a great read with many adventures and surprises. Aug 25, Sharon M. Jay Felix is determined to have a wife He's met five women so far; will one of them end up as his wife or will it be someone else?

Jay will have to prove himself to win his woman and this time he's in it for keeps. I've enjoyed reading all of Jay's escapades but, this time, I even fell a little bit in love with him.

Read this book I believe you will definitely enjoy and be a little surprised by the things that happen. Aug 28, Della Jackson rated it it was amazing. Wow What a book as good as the rest of them. Dose the rock star get over hisself, will he think of others? The drams, twist, turns, it keeps you on the edge of your seat not sure where witch way its going to go. To find out what happen because there is more.

Grab your copy, your favorite drink and turn the world off so you don't miss anything. I received an ARC in exchange for an honest review. Sep 14, H rated it really liked it. Jason finally gets his happily ever after, Jay the rock star has his troubles looking for a wife. Between wildfires, cyclones, killer jellyfish, and assassin attended weddings he finds the courage to open up and let someone in to actually get to know Jason the man, not Jay the rocker.

Micheline Saumier rated it liked it Mar 17, Connie rated it it was amazing Jan 22, Nikky rated it it was ok Apr 16, Mia rated it it was amazing Apr 17, Angela Grimpe rated it it was amazing Sep 01,